Another cause of land pollution is chemical treatment of the land. This study fully investigated indoor environment in 10 houses 5 urban and 5 rural houses with older people during heating season in Beijing, China.
The administrative decentralization brought about by the creation of new states 12 inand now 36 from the four former regions, and the creation of several local governments now fostered Pollution in urban in rural homes growth of many large and secondary cities and towns that served as state capitals and local government headquarters.
Indoor air pollution can be particularly hazardous to health as it is released in close proximity to people. For instance, residential areas are also now widely used for small businesses, in complete disregard of the zoning arrangements which require separate areas for presumed incompatible activities.
As industrialization and the volume of automobile traffic increases, the problems of industrial emissions and exhaust fumes will add to land, water, and air pollution, with adverse implications for public health and quality of life.
Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes levels in most houses were lower than the limit values. Diesel combustion, in particular, was percent higher in urban areas than rural, the study found.
Irregular settlements also have become so pervasive that they seem to outnumber legally planned development, and their social legitimacy appears to be no longer in question. Urban planning and housing were used as instruments of segregation and social policy — to ensure that the small community of Europeans was protected in segregated high-quality residential reservations.
Waste Management, Drainage, and Health More waste is generated from commercial and domestic activities than can be properly managed with the rudimentary system available for collecting, transporting, and disposing of the wide variety of solid wastes in cities.
Housing, Planning, and Health The World Health Organization reckons that it is the home, not the clinic, that is the key to a better health delivery system. When it is not disposed of correctly it becomes surface waste and creates land pollution.
Increasingly, studies are also linking solid fuel use to other cancers, as well as tuberculosis, cataracts, low birth weight and possibly heart disease. Some deaths may be attributed to more than one risk factor at the same time.
Unfortunately, the appalling environmental conditions associated with informal sector activities and settlements constitute a major threat to the health and well-being of urban life. Water, Sanitation, and Health In most Nigerian towns and cities water supply and sanitation are grossly inadequate for domestic and personal hygiene, in spite of the gains of the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade campaign of the s.
Outdoor air enters and leaves a house by: In a process known as infiltration, outdoor air flows into the house through openings, joints, and cracks in walls, floors, and ceilings, and around windows and doors. These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution.
Fortunately, scientists like Harkema are working to find ways to mitigate its adverse health effects. The campaign soon became associated with misguided efforts to contain urban growth, and to restrain the informal sector, as the sector was blamed for all sorts of evil social influences — littering the streets, obstructing traffic, creating various forms of pollution and nuisance, crime, piracy, prostitution, foreign exchange malpractices, etc.
The Nigerian Town and Country Planning Ordinance of remained essentially unchanged untilnot because it was working satisfactorily but because it was largely ignored and by-passed by rapid growth and spontaneous development.
The National Directorate for Employment NDEestablished inwas meant to promote self-employment through training and loans to unemployed youth, but the main orientation of the program was to reverse rural-urban migration by encouraging investment in rural agriculture.T.A “MAIN CAUSES OF POLLUTION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS” CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION: [pic] REASON: Land pollution is a major global health concern, and occurs when humans fail to manage their waste appropriately and leave it.
Transportation-related air pollution, which is a significant contributor to total urban air pollution, increases the risks of cardiopulmonary-related deaths and non-allergic.
Household air pollution is also a major source of outdoor air pollution in both urban and rural areas. The WHO Air quality guidelines offer global guidance on thresholds and limits for key air pollutants that pose health risks.
But rural areas are subject to local sources of pollution as well as secondary effects from urban areas—which means the total Training graduate students to become leaders in public health research and professional practice.
Studies conducted by the EPA have shown that indoor air pollution is a problem for all types of homes, whether in a dense urban city or a rural town. Some of the sources include: Some of the sources include.
THE URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA: TOWARDS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, AND SOCIAL HARMONY.
Nwaka. Poverty dominates the international development agenda of the 21st century.Download