This practice is often deeply rooted in the culture of societies. Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support.
The procedures are used as a means of controlling the sexuality of female populations. This is the main reason for the slow progress on declining the prevalence of FGM. Genital and sexual mutilation of females. However, it is a means of cultural identity for the female. Special knives, scissors, razors or pieces of glass, even sharp stones are reported as being used.
Consequences of FGM Many men and women from practising communities can be unaware of the relationship between FGM and its harmful physical and mental health consequences.
In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: Macro International Inc; The practitioners' use of shared instruments is thought to aid the transmission of hepatitis Bhepatitis C and HIValthough no epidemiological studies have shown this.
Over the past four decades, progress has been reported in the following areas: Kelson, "The Courage to Blaspheme": This article also examines the Western response to this practice. This article, like the one above, was excellent in getting a background on female genital mutilation.
It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. Others are defibulation with bleeding, injury to urethra and bladder,[ 10 ] injury to rectum, and purperial sepsis.
At that time female circumcision did not qualify as a form of persecution under U. It describes the types of circumcision, the health and psychological consequences to the female, and legal issues dealt with in the practice of female circumcision.
Why it is practised? However, the author concludes that the only way to end this practice is to help in educating the women. Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia. In Nigeria, this law provides them with a legal framework and backing to tackle the problem.
Efforts by the government have not proven very effective. Finally, the author speaks about the practice of female genital mutilation on American soil.
The author describes the use of this process as a means of dominating the women. This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis. In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five.
How is FGM performed? In this conclusion is a description of a nineteen year old who flew to America seeking asylum.
The practice of clitoridectomy was used to "cure" a variety of female disorders, such as lesbianism and excessive masturbation. Abstract Background Global efforts to end female genital mutilation FGM have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls.
Finally the United States is providing financial support to organizations in Africa that are trying to end the practice of female genital mutilation. WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on: Female genital mutilation and Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country Until the s FGM was widely known as female circumcision, which gave the erroneous impression that it was equivalent in severity and health effects to male circumcision.
Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife". This article explores many of the aspects of female genital mutilation. This article describes in detail the procedures and the resulting lives of women who undergo some type of female genital mutilation.
Shannon Brownlee, et al. The description begins with an look at the procedure used, as televised on CNN in the fall of Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out.Female genital mutilation, sometimes also called female sexual mutilation, comprises “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” (WHO, ).
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that involves altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons, and it is internationally recognized as a human rights violation.
Globally, it is estimated that million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM. Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice with severe health consequences for girls and women.
FGM/C comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. A interagency statement classifies FGM into four types. Communities that practice female genital mutilation report a variety of sociocultural reasons for continuing with it.
Seen from a human rights perspective, the practice reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. FGM/C encompasses any procedure involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
FGM/C is the term used by the departments and agencies in the federal government as part of their response to this harmful practice.Download